Well I’ve been on this permaculture home study journey for about 2 months and am about to start my overall design. I’ve got tons of ideas from my various readings which so far have included:
- Earth Users Guide to Permaculture, Rosemary Morrow
- Edible Front Yard, Ivette Solier (from local library) – reviewed in earlier post
- Perennial Vegetables, Eric Toensmeir (from local library)
- The Resilient Garden, Carol Deppe
- about half of Little House on a Small Planet, Shay Salomon & Nigel Valdez
- and the echo follows – reviewed in earlier post
- Polyculture Handouts – reviewed in earlier post
- Gaia’s Garden, Toby Hemenway (from local library)
- A Forest Garden Pattern Language – excellent resource available from Regenerative Designs.
- Re localizing Your Urban Lifestyle – excellent resource available here from Joanne Poyourow. I hope to talk more about zones in a later post.
- How not to play the game – another interesting online article from John Micheal Greer, the author of The Long Descent
- Online PDC Course – Right now I’m up to the lesson on Soil Ecology
I’ve got a pretty good idea of the various parts of my site analysis, I just haven’t drawn it up yet.
Before moving forward though, I needed to synthesize all of these learning to better find my process of design. To do this, I looked permaculture design using a systems approach. A simple way of looking at a single natural population would be as a renewable stock (the population of say ducks–since I’m reading the Resilient Gardener) constrained by a renewable stock (food, i.e. corn). On a given amount of land with the goals of raising ducks and growing corn,the main system components I notice are :
- the amounts of ducks on the land,
- the number of corn plants you have,
- the rate that the duck population increases and decreases over time,
- the rate that food supply grows and is harvested over time,
- the way that the amount of corn available for harvest constrains the duck population,
- the way that the carrying capacity of the land constrains the amount of corn available,
- the way that the corn travels to the population i.e. the place where the transfer between ducks and food takes place.
In permaculture terms we call the amount of food harvested (per amount of land), the yield. while we call the place where the transfer of nutrients between the ducks and food occurs, the edge.
I can restate the permaculture principles this way:
- Produce a yield – Be able to generate a harvest of food for the ducks.
- Store energy – Since energy is stored in biomass, create a stock or storage of both ducks and available corn.
- Leverage feedback – A person managing this system would not increase the duck reproduction rate, or number of ducks too sharply, they would eat more corn than could be grown over time and slowly (or quickly) both populations would collapse. They would need to watch this carefully.
- Use renewable resources – If I fed the ducks from a 50 gallon drum (or whatever volume drum) of store-bought dried corn, the duck population would crash when I ran out of food. If I grow the food, I can support some level of a sustainable duck population based on the amount of corn harvested basically forever.
- No waste – If you consider the duck poop as an ingredient of the compost pile, the poop would make the land more fertile and increase the corn yield. The system that consisted of 2 stocks before, would grow to three stocks: ducks, corn plants and compost.
- Patterns – for this analysis I’m analyzing this duck/food system using the pattern of a renewable stock constrained by a separate renewable stock.
- Reciprocity /integration – As this simple 2 function/2 stock system becomes more complex and integrated (by adding the composting function), it becomes more productive.
- Diversity – If I add different types of ducks (or even chickens) or different types of duck foods,( corn, duck chow, and squash) to the system, it becomes more stable. If insects destroy one type of food , the others would still remain and be able to feed the ducks.
- Small and slow – Sharp changes to the growth rate of the ducks or decreases to the harvest rate for the corn will cause the system to crash. Small and slow changes are preferable. Systems especially living systems can produce some unintended consequences particularly when time delays hide consequences.
- Embrace change – Over time, natural systems change, growing more and more complex. As more integration occurs, more populations can be added to the overall system increasing the overall yield.
Knowing all of this, how do you grow a more stable population over time? Well, it follows you can (not in any particular order):
- Make changes to the system to increase the production rate (of the food).
- Make changes to the system to reduce decreases in yield due to losses (like the loss of corn due to spoilage).
- Increase the number of functions provided (from raising food and raising ducks to doing these two things plus creating compost)
- Increase the number of elements you have in the system producing a yield (from just corn to corn, slugs and rainwater from the roof– all of these would support the food/duck system)
- Substitute local producers for non local ones (to conserve energy)
- Substitute renewable producers for non-renewable ones
- Increase the diversity of elements included and products (stocks) created
- Introduce small and slow changes to reduce oscillations
- Increase stocks over time through succession
- Re-consider wastes as “foods” for other system elements (View problems as unfilled niches.)
- Monitor and reconfigure edges so that transfers can happen more easily and efficiently
- Create and check new feedback loops.
I can use all of these methods to change my suburban property to one based on permaculture principles. On a given amount of land (my property) with the primary functions of heating, cooling, creating electricity, raising food, recycling and capturing water, for my property I’ll look at:
- my desired stocks of money, energy, skills, biodiversity and recyclable materials and the yields of these stocks
- the elements I’ll use to generate these yields , (like the number of ducks and corn plants)
- the rates that these stocks are created and degraded
- the factors that constrain my use of these stocks (like the amount of corn available for harvest constrains the duck population).
- the key locations of the transfers
More about this in Moving from Patterns to Details part 2.